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Species

Table 1: Classification of wheat species (Triticum ssp.)

Genome level

Species

Chromosome number (2n =)

Genome formula

Diploid

urartu2n=

   14

AuAu

boeoticum

   14

AmAm

monococcum

   14

AmAm

ssp.

monococcum (cultivated form, einkorn or small spelt wheat)

aegilopoides (wild type)

ssp.

sinskajae (mutant, free-threshing form of T. monococcum)

   14

AmAm

 

 

 

 

Tetraploid

turgidum

          28

BBAuAu

ssp.

turgidum (rivet, cone, or pollard wheat)

ssp.

carthlicum (Peresian or Persian black wheat)

ssp.

dicoccum (emmer wheat)

ssp.

durum (macaroni, hard, or durum wheat)

ssp.

paleocolchicum

ssp.

polonicum (Polish wheat)

ssp.

turanicum (Khorasan wheat)

ssp.

dicoccoides (wild emmer wheat)

araraticum

   28

GGAuAu

timopheevi

   28

GGAuAu

militinae (mutant of T. timopheevi)

   28

GGAuAu

 

 

 

 

Hexaploid

aestivum

   42

BBAuAuDD

ssp.

aestivum species (bread wheat)

ssp.

compactum (club, dwarf, hedgehog, or  cluster wheat)

ssp.

macha

ssp.

spelta (large spelt or dinkel wheat

ssp.

sphaerococcum

vavilovii

   42

BBAuAuDD

zhukovskyi  (T. timopheevi T. monococcum)

   42

GGAuAuAuAu

There are five known combinations in the genus Triticum leading to five super species:

  • Am T. monococcum
  • Au T. urartu
  • BAu T. turgidum
  • GAu T. timopheevi
  • BAuD, T. aestivum
  • In the genus Triticum, five genomes, all originally found in diploid species, have been identified:
  • Am - present in wild einkorn (T. boeoticum)
  • Au - present in T. urartu (closely related to T. boeoticum)
  • B - present in most tetraploid wheats; source most similar to Aegilops speltoides
  • G - present in T. timopheevi group of wheats; source most similar to Ae. speltoides.
  • D - present in Ae. squarrosa, i.e.,  in all hexaploid wheats

© by R. Schlegel 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2014 2015 2014 2015 2016

Platzhalter-Bild

Wheat x Aegilops ovata hybrid and parental spikes

Aegilops_caudata1a

Wheat x Aegilops caudata hybrid, F1 meiosis

Aegilops_neglecta

Aegilops neglecta

Platzhalter-Bild

Wheat x Aegilops sharonense hybrid and parental spikes