In allogamous rye selfing results in strong inbreeding depression, i.e., hybrid genotypes display heterosis. Major heterotic effects are found for grain yield, sometimes up to 210%. As hybrid breeding in rye progressed, line performance increased and relative midparent heterosis for grain yield decreased to about 140 %. Presently, more than 20 hybrid varieties are on the commercial list in Germany , occupying about 60% of the total rye acreage. Some of these hybrids are registered and distributed in Austria, Denmark, France, UK, Scandinavia, Netherlands, and Australia.

For hybrid seed production genotypes are needed showing cytoplasmatically male sterility and restoration effects:

Cytoplasmic male sterility derived from different source:


P = “Pampa” cytoplasm  (339)

V = Cytoplasm of VAVILOV type (368)

C = Cytoplasm of wild rye, Secale montanaum (369)

R = Cytoplasm of rye (370)

S = Mutated cytoplasm of “Kärtner” rye (349)

G29 = Mutated cytoplasm of “Schlägler alt” rye (368)

Chromosomal localization of dominant pollen-restorer genes with major (+++, ++) and moderate effects (+) according to the “Pampa” male sterility-inducing cytoplasm

Compiled from different genotypes
























*) Genotypes, such as “Inbred 18, “Inbred 161”, “Iran IX”, “Massaux”, “Gentario”

   Copyright  R. Schlegel   &   V. Korzun    2004 2005 2006 2007 2008  2009  2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015  2016